Medical Terminology
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FOUR WORD PARTS
@1. Word Root iꊲj

The word root is the word part that is the core of the word.
The word root contains the fundamental meaning of the word.
ex. arthr/itis
@@hepat/itis

@2. Prefix iړj

The prefix is a word part attached to the beginning of a word root
to modify its meaning.
ex. sub/hepat/ic
@@intra/ven/ous

@3. Suffix iڔj

The suffix is a word part attached to the end of the word root to
modify its meaning.
ex. hepat/ic
@@hepat/itis

@4. Combining vowel iꉹj

The combining vowel (o, i etc.) is used between two word roots or
between a word root and a suffix to ease pronunciation.
ex. arthr/o/pathy
@@@hepat/ic the suffix ic begins with the vowel i;
@@@@@@@@@@@@therefore a combining vowel is not used.

A word root with a combining vowel is a combining form.

Examples of combining forms are:
@ather/o
@oste/o
@ven/o
@hepat/o

For learning purposes word roots are listed as combining
forms throughout the text.


Common Plural Endings for Medical Terms



vnqc@qnns


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TOP@ index
WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
abdomin/o abdomen abdominal distention, abdominocentesis
acanth/o thorny, spiny acanthosis, acantholysis
acetabul/o acetabulum (hip socket) acetabuloplasty, acetabulectomy
acid/o acid acidophilic, acidosis
actin/o ray, radius Actinomyces, actinic keratosis
acou/o hearing acouesthesia, acoustic nerve
acr/o extremities, height acrocyanosis, acromegaly
adenoid/o adenoids adenoidectomy
aden/o gland adenoma, lymphadenitis
adrenal/o adrenal gland adrenalectomy, hyperadenocorticism
adren/o adrenal gland adrenogenital syndrome, adrenocorticotropin
aer/o air, gas aerobe, anaerobic, aeroembolism, aerosol
albumin/o albumin hypoalbuminemia, albuminuria
algesi/o pain algesiometer, algesiogenic
alveol/o alveolus alveolitis, alveolar proteinosis
ambly/o dull, dim amblychromasis, amblyopia
amni/o amnion diamniotic
amnion/o amnion diamnionic
amyl/o starch amyloidosis, amylase, amylose
an/o anus anorectal, anoperineal
andr/o male androgen, androblastoma
angi/o vessel angiography, lymphangiitis
anis/o unequal, dissimilar anisocoria, anisocytosis
ankyl/o crooked, stiff, bent ankylosing spondylitis, Ankylostoma
antr/o antrum antrectomy, antral
aort/o aorta aortography, aortitis
aponeur/o aponeurosis aponeurotomy
appendic/o appendix appendicitis
arche/o first, beginning archeocyte, archenteron
arteri/o artery arteriovenous fistula, arteriosclerosis
arteriol/o arteriole (small artery) arteriolosclerosis
arthr/o joint arthralgia, arthroscope, artropathy
articul/o joint articulation
atel/o imperfect, incomplete atelectasis
ather/o yellowish, fatty plaque atherosclerosis, atheroma
atri/o atrium atrioseptal defect, atrioventricular node
audi/o hearing audiology, audiovisual, auditorium
aur/i,o ear auricular cartilage, aura
aut/o self autoregulation, autoimmune
axill/o armpit axillary lymph node
az/o urea, nitrogen azotemia, azide, diazonium
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
bacteri/o bacteria bactericidal, bacteriophage
bar/o pressure barotrauma, barometer
balan/o glans penis balanitis, balanic, balonoplasty
bas/o base basophil, basalioma, basolateral
bi/o life biopsy, biochemistry, symbiosis
bil/i bile biliary tract, hemobilia, bilirubin
blast/o developing cell fibroblast, myeloblast, neuroblast
blephar/o eyelid blepharoptosis, blepharoblast
brachi/o arm brachiocephalic, brachial artery
bronch/i,o bronchus bronchiole, bronchospasm, bronchiectasia
bronchiol/o bronchiole bronchiolitis
bucc/o cheek buccal, buccinator, buccula
burs/o bursa (cavity) peribursal, bursitis
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
calc/i calcium calcification, calcitonin, calcinosis
cancer/o cancer cancerization, cancerogenic, cancerous
carcin/o cancer adenocarcinoma, carcinoembryonic antigen
cardi/o heart cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, endocardium
carp/o carpals (wrist bones) carpectomy, carpal tunnel syndrome
caud/o tail, toward the lower part of the body caudal, caudate nucleus, caudad
cec/o cecum cecostomy, cecoptosis, cecal
celi/o abdomen celiac artery, celiocentasis
cephal/o head encephalopathy, microcephaly, cephalic
cerebell/o cerebellum supracerebellar, olivopontocerebellar atrophy
cerebr/o cerebrum, brain cerebrospinal fluid, cerebroside
cerumin/o cerumen (earwax) ceruminosis
cervic/o cervix cervicofacial, cervicitis, endocervical
cheil/o lip cheiloplasty, cheilitis
chir/o hand chirospasm, chiropodalgia
cholangi/o bile duct cholangitis, cholangiocellular carcinoma
chol/e gall, bile cholesterol, cholestasis, choline
choledoch/o common bile duct choledocholith, choledochostomy
chondr/o cartlage chondrosarcoma, chondroitin sulfate
chori/o chorion choriocarcinoma, human chorionic gonadotropin
chrom/o color chromogen, chromosome, chromaffin cell
chromat/o color chromatin, chromatography
chron/o time synchronous, chronological
clavic/o clavicle (collar bone) clavicotomy
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone) claviculectomy
col/o colon colostomy, colorectal, colitis
colp/o vagina colposcopy, colpospasm, colpitis
coni/o dust pneumoconiosis, coniophage
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva conjunctivitis
core/o pupil corectomy, corectasis
corne/o cornea corneal, corneosclera, corneoiritis
coron/o heart coronary artery
cortic/o cortex (outer layer of body organ) corticospinal tract, corticosteroid cortical
cor/o pupil corometer
cost/o rib costophrenic angle
crani/o cranium(skull) cranial nerve, craniotomy
cry/o cold cryosurgery, cryoglobulin
crypt/o hidden cryptorchism, cryptococcosis, cryptic
culd/o cul-de-sac culdocentesis
cutane/o skin cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneomucosal
cyan/o blue cyanosis, hemocyanin, cyanocobalamine
cyes/i,o pregnancy cyesis, cyesedema
cyst/o bladder, sac cystostomy, cholecystitis, cystadenoma
cyt/o cell cytology, cytotoxic, thrombocytopenia
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
dacry/o tear, tear duct dacryostenosis, dacryon
dactyl/o fingers or toes polydactyly, arachnoidactylia
dent/i tooth dentist, denture, dentate, dentine
dermat/o skin dermatology, dermatitis, dermatomyositis
derm/o skin epidermal, dermoid cyst
dextr/o right dextrocardia, dextrose
diaphor/o sweat diaphoresis, diaphorase
diaphragmat/o diaphragm diaphragmatocele
dipl/o two, double diplopia, diploid, diplobacterium
dips/o thirst dipsomania, dipsia, dipsotherapy
diverticul/o diverticulum diverticulitis, diverticulosis
dors/i,o back (of the body) dorsolateral, dorsiflexion
duoden/o duodenum duodenectomy, duodenitis
dur/o hard, dura mater duroarachnoiditis, subdural hematoma
dynam/o motion hemodynamics, dynamism
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
ech/o sound echography, hypoechoic
ectop/o located away from usual place ectopic tissue, ectopism
electr/o electricity, electrical electroencephalography, electrophoresis activity
embry/o embryo, to be full embryology, embryonic, polyembryoma
emmetr/o a normal measure emmetropia
encephal/o brain anencephaly, encephalomalacia
endocrin/o endocrine endocrinology, endocrinopathy
enter/o intestines Enterococcus, gastroenterology
epididym/o epididymis epididymitis, epididymovasectomy
epiglott/o epiglottis epiglottitis
episi/o vulva episioplasty, episiotomy
epitheli/o epithelium epithelioid cell, epithelioma
erythr/o red erythrocyte, erythremia, erythropoietin
esophag/o esophagus esophagitis, esophagojejunostomy
esthesi/o sensaition, sensitivity, feeling esthesioneuroblastoma
eti/o cause (of disease) etiology, etiotropic
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
faci/o face facioplasty, facioplasia, facial palsy
femor/o emur (upper leg bone) femoral artery, femorotibial
ferr/i,o iron ferric, transferrin, ferrocyanide
fet/i,o fetus, unborn child fetoplacental relation, alpha-fetoprotein
fibr/o fibrous tissue, fibers fibrosis, fibroblast, fibril
fibul/o fibula (lower leg bone) fibulocalcaneal
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
galact/o milk galactose, agalactia, galactorrhea
gangli/o ganglion ganglioneuroma, paraganglioma
ganglion/o ganglion aganglionosis, ganglionic
gastr/o stomach gastritis, epigastric, epigastralgia
gen/o origin, formation organogenesis, carcinogenesis, gene
ger/o old age, aged progeria, geromorphism
geront/o old age, aged gerontology, gerontopia
gingiv/o gum gingivectomy, gingivitis
gli/o neuroglia glioma, oligodendroglia, gliosis
glomerul/o glomerulus glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis
gloss/o tongue glossitis, macroglossia, glossopharyngeal
glyc/o sugar hypoglycemia, glycogen, triglyceride
glycos/o sugar glycosuria, glycoside, glycosylation
gluc/o sweetness, sugar glucocorticoid, glucose, glucuronic acid
gnath/o jaw prognathous, epignathus, Gnathostoma
gnos/o knowledge gnosis, gnosia
gon/o seed, knee gonad, gonalgia, Gonococcus
gravid/o pregnancy gravida, multigravida
gynec/o woman gynecology, gynecomastia
gyn/o woman gynogamete
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
hem/o blood hemorrhage, hemophilia, hemorrhoid
hemat/o blood hematology, hematocrit, hematopoiesis
hepat/o liver hepatocyte, hepatitis, hepatology
herni/o hernia herniotomy, herniation, hernioplasty
heter/o other heterogenous, heterozygote, heterotopia
hidr/o sweat hidradenoma, hidradenitis
hist/o tissue histology, histoplasmosis, histamine
home/o sameness, unchanging homeostasis, homeothermia
hom/o same homosexual, homologous, homogeneous
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone) humeroscapular
hydr/o water dehydration, hydrops fetalis, hydrostatic
hymen/o hymen hymenal, hymenorrhaphy
hypn/o sleep hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotism
hyster/o uterus hysterectomy, hysterics
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
ichthy/o fish ichthyosis, ichthyoid
ile/o ileum ileitis, ileocecal valve
ili/o ilium iliopelvic, iliac artery
immun/o immune immunostaining, immunization, immunity
irid/o iris iridoschisis, iridocyclitis
iri/o iris iritis
is/o equal, same isotope, isozyme, anisocoria
ischi/o ischium ischiatic nerve, ischiopubic
isch/o deficiency, blockage ischophonia, ischemia, ischuria
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
jejun/o jejunum jejunoileal, jejunitis
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
kal/i potassium hyperkalemia, hypokalemia
kary/o nucleus megakaryocyte, karyorrhexis, karyotype
kerat/o cornea keratoplasty, keratoconjunctivitis
kerat/o horny tissue, hard keratosis, keratinization
kin/e movement kinetics, kinetoplast, kinetochore
kinesi/o movement, motion kinesis, akinesia
kyph/o hump kyphosis, kyphorachitis
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
labi/o lips labiodental, labiomancy, labiate
labyrinth/o labyrinth labyrinthitis, labyrinthine, reflex
lacrim/o tear duct, tear nasolacrimal, lacrimation
lact/o milk lactogenic, lactose, lactoferrin
lamin/o lamina (thin, flat plate or layer) laminectomy, laminin
lapar/o abdomen laparotomy, laparoscope
laryng/o larynx laryngoscope, laryngectomy
later/o side ipsilateral, unilateral
lei/o smooth leiomyoma, leiotrichous
leuk/o white leukocyte, leukemia, leukoplakia
lingu/o tongue lingual, linguistic
lip/o fat lipoid, lipoprotein, liposarcoma
lith/o stone, calculus lithiasis, phlebolith, ethotomy
lob/o lobe lobotomy, lobectomy, lobar, lobule
lumb/o lumber region, lower back lumbago, thoracolumbar, lumbosacral
lymph/o lymph lymphoma, lymphoblast, lymphangictasia
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
macr/o abnormal largeness macroglobulin, macroscopic, macrohematuria
mamm/o breast mammography, mammalian, mammillary body
mandibul/o mandible (upper jawbone) mandibulectomy, mandibulofacial
mast/o breast mastectomy, mastitis, mastopathy
mastoid/o mastoid mastoidectomy, mastoiditis
maxill/o maxill (lower jawbone) maxillectomy, maxillotomy
meat/o meatus (opening) meatal, meatoscope
melan/o black melanoma, melanin, melanosis
men/o menstruation amenorrhea, menopause, menarche
mening/i,o meninges meningioma, meningocele
menisc/o meniscus (crescent) meniscocyte (=sickle cell)
ment/o mind mentality, dementia
ment/o chin mentohyoid, mentolabial
metr/i,o uterus metrorrhagia, endometriosis, pyometra
micr/o small microscope, microdissection
mon/o one monoclonal, monocyte, monochrome
morph/o form, shape morphology, metamorphosis, monomorphic
muc/o mucus, mucous membrane mucosa, mucin, mucopolysaccharide
my/o muscle myoma, myalgia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
myc/o fungus mycosis, mycobacterium, mycotic embolism
myel/o bone marrow myelofibrosis, myelogenous, myeloma
myel/o spinal cord myelitis, myelogram, myeloma
myelon/o spinal cord myelonic
myring/o eardrum myringotome, myringorupture
myx/o mucus myxoma, myxoid matrix, paramyxovirus
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
nan/o dwarf nanomelia, nanogram, nanophthalmia
narc/o stupor narcosis, narcolepsy, narcotism
nas/o nose paranasal, nasopharynx, nasolabial fold
nat/o birth neonate, natality, prenatal diagnosis
necr/o death (cell, body) necrosis, necrotizing angiitis, necropsy
nephr/o kidney nephron, nephropathy, nephrosclerosis
neur/o nerve neurosis, neuralgia, neuroblastoma
neutr/o neither (neutral) neutron, neutrophilia, neutralize
noct/i night nocturnal, nocturia, noctambulation
nyct/o night nyctophobia, nyctotyphlosis
nycta/o night nyctalgia, nyctalopia
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
ocul/o eye oculomotor nerve, ocular, oculogyration
odont/o tooth odontalgia, odontogenic tumor
olig/o scanty, few oliguria, oligodendrocyte, oligosaccharide
omphal/o umbilicus, navel omphalocele, omphalophlebitis
onc/o tumor oncogene, oncologist, oncocyte
onych/o nail melanoonychia, onychophagia, pachyonichia
o/o egg, ovum oogenesis, oocyte, oocyst
oophor/o ovary oophorectomy, oophoritis
ophthalm/o eye ophthalmology, opthalmoscope
opt/o vision optometer, optician
orchid/o testis, testicle orchidoepididymectomy
orchi/o testis, testicle orchiectomy, orchiopexy, orchitis
organ/o organ organogenesis, microorganism
or/o mouth oropharynx, oral, orolingual
orth/o straight orthopnea, orthopedics, orthostatic
oste/o bone osteoporosis, endosteum, osteosarcoma
ot/o ear otoplasty, otorhinopharyngolaryngology
ov/i,o egg ovulation, ovotestis, ovoid, oval
ox/i,o oxygen oxidant, peroxidation, dioxide
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
pachy/o thick pachymeningitis, pachyderma
palat/o palate palatine, palatoschisis
pancreat/o pancreas pancreatobiliary, pancreatitis
papill/o nipple papillary, papilloma, papillotubular
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland parathyroidectomy, hypoparathyroidism
par/o bear, give birth to, labor parity, viviparity
part/o bear, give birth to, labor postpartal
parthen/o virgin parthenogenesis, parthenophobia
patell/o patella (knee cap) patellectomy
path/o disease pathology, pathogenesis, pathogen
pector/o chest pectoral muscle, pectoriloguy
ped/o child, foot pediatrics, pedal, pedestrian
pelv/i,o pelvis, pelvic bone pelvimetry, pelviolithotomy
pept/o digestion peptide, peptone, Peptococcus
perine/o perineum perineal, perineotomy
peritone/o peritoneum peritoneal, retroperitoneum
petr/o stone osteopetrosis, petroleum
phac, phak/o lens of the eye phacolysis, phacomatosis, phacomalacia
phag/o eat, swallow phagocytosis, macrophage, erythrophagia
phalang/o phalange (finger or toe bone) phalangeal joint, metaphalanx
pharyng/o pharynx pharyngeal, nasopharyngitis
phas/o speech aphasia, dysphasia
phe/o brown pheochromocytoma, pheomelanin
phleb/o vein phlebectasis, phlebitis, phlebolith
phot/o light photosensitivity, photon
phren/o mind schizophrenia, phrenopathy
physi/o nature physiology, physiologist, physical
plasm/o plasma neoplasm, cytoplasmic, plasminogen
pleur/o pleura pleuritis, pleurisy, pleuralgia
pneumat/o lung, air pneumatosis
pneum/o,pneumon/o lung, air pneumonectomy, pneumonitis, pneumothorax
pod/o foot podocyte, anthropod
poikil/o varid, irregular poikilocytosis, poikiloderma
poli/o gray matter poliomyelitis, poliovirus
polyp/o polyp, small growth polypectomy, polypoid
porphyr/o purple porphyrin, porphyria
poster/o back (of body) posterolateral
prim/i first primigravida, primordium
proct/o rectum proctology, proctitis, proctoscope
prostat/o prostate gland prostatic acid phosphatase, prostatitis
prote/o protein proteolysis, protease, proteoglycan
pseud/o false pseudopolyposis, pseudocyst, Pseudomonas
psych/o mind psychotherapy, psychology
pub/o pubis pubococcygeal. pubic
puerper/o childbirth puerperium, puerperal period
pulmon/o lung pulmonary artery, pulmonic
pupill/o pupil pupillotonia
py/o pus pyogenic, pyoderma, pyosalpinx
pyel/o renal pelvis pyelogram, pyelonephritis
pylor/o pylorus (pyloric sphincter) pylorospasm, pyloroplasty
pyr/o fever, heat pyrogen, pyrophosphate, pyroglobulin
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
quadr/i four quadrant, quadriceps muscle
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
rachi/o vertebra, spinal or vertebral column rachischisis, rachiocentesis, rachiomyelitis
radic/o nerve root radicle, radicotomy
radicul/o nerve root radiculitis, myeloradiculopathy
radi/o radius (lower arm bone) radiocarpal
rect/o rectum rectocele, rectoscopy
ren/o kidney adrenal, renin, renovascular hypertension
reticul/o network reticular, reticulocyte, reticulosis
retin/o retina retinopathy, retinoblastoma
rhabd/o rod-shaped, stiated rhabdomyosarcoma, Rhabditis
rhin/o nose rhinorrhea, rhinitis, rhinoscheroma
rhytid/o wrinkles rhytidoplasty
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
salping/o fallopian (uterine) tube salpingotomy, salpingitis
sarc/o flesh, connective tissue sarcoma, sarcoplasmic reticulum
scapul/o scapula (shoulder bone) scapulectomy
scler/o sclera, hard arteriosclerosis, episclera, sclerotherapy
scoli/o crooked, curved scoliosis, scoliometer
seb/o sebum (oil) seborrhea, sebaceous gland
sial/o saliva sialolith, sialadenitis, sialic acid
sider/o iron siderophage, hemosiderosis, sideroblast
sigmoid/o sigmoid sigmoidoscope, sigmoidectomy
sinister/o left sinistrad, sinistrous
sin/o sinus/o sinus sinoatrial node, sinusoid
somat/o body somatostatin, somatic mutation
somn/i,o sleep somnolence
son/o sound ultrasonic, sonicator
spermat/o spermatozoan, sperm spermatogonia, spermatocele
sperm/o spermatozoan, sperm spermine
sphygm/o pulse sphygmomanometer
spir/o breathe, breathing spirometer, spirometry
splen/o spleen asplenia, polysplenia, splenomegaly
spondyl/o vertebra, spinal or vertebral column spondylolysis, spondylitis
staped/o stapes (milddle ear bone) stapedial
staphyl/o grape-like clusters Staphylococcus
steat/o fatty steatorrhea, steatocystoma
stern/o sternum (breastbone) sternocleidomastoid muscle
steth/o chest stethoscope, stethomyositis
stomat/o mouth stomatitis, stomatodysodia
strept/o twisted chains Streptobacillus, streptolysin
synovi/o synovia, synovial membrane synovitis, synovioma
system/o system systematic, systematology
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
tars/o tarsals (ankle bones) tarsotomy, metatarsal
tars/o edge of eyelid, tarsal (instep of foot) tarsitis, tarsoorbital
tendin/o tendon tendinous, tendinitis
tend/o tendon tendosynovitis
ten/o tendon tenoplasty
terat/o malformed fetus teratoma, teratogenesis
test/o testis, testicle testicular, testosterone
therm/o heat hypothermia, thermometer, thermotherapy
thorac/o thorax (cheat) thoracic duct, thoracolumbar spine
thromb/o clot thrombolysis, thromboembolism, thrombin
thym/o thymus gland thymectomy, thymoma, thymosin
thyroid/o thyroid gland thyroidectomy, thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism
thyr/o thyroid gland thyroglossal duct, thyroglobulin
tibi/o tibia (lower leg bone) tibioperoneal
toc/o labor eutocia, tocus, tocophenol
tom/o cut, section tomography, tomotocia
ton/o tension, pressure atonic, tonofilament, hypertonic
tonsill/o tonsils tonsillitis, tonsillectomy
top/o place ectopia, topography, topology
toxic/o poison toxicology, toxicosis, toxicoderma
trachel/o neck, necklike trachelectomy, trachelocyllosis
trache/o trachea tracheostomy, tracheobronchitis
trich/o hair Trichomonas, Trichophyton, trichilemmal
tympan/o eardrum, middle ear tympanometry, tympanoplasty
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
uln/o ulna (lower arm bone) ulnocarpal, ulnar deviation
ungu/o nail ungual, unguligradation
ureter/o ureter hydroureter, ureteroscope
urethr/o urethra urethroscope, urethritis
urin/o urine, urinary tract urinometry, urinalysis, uriniferous
ur/o urine, urinary tract urology, urobilinogen, uremia
uter/o uterus intrauterine, uterovaginal
uvul/o uvula uvulitis, uvulectomy
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
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vagin/o vagina vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis
valvul/o valve valvuloplasty
vas/o vessel, duct vasodilation, vasotomy, vasa vasorum
ven/o vein venous, venoocclusive disease
ventricul/o ventricle ventriculitis, intraventricular
verd/o green biliverdin, verdohemoglobin
vertebr/o vertebra, spinal or verebral column paravertebral, invertebrate
vesic/o bladder, sac vesical, vesicoureteral, vesicle
vesicul/o seminal vesicles vesiculogram, vesiculitis
vir/o virus viremia, virology, viruria, virocyte
viscer/o internal organs visceral, viscerology
vulv/o vulva vulvar, vulvovaginitis
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WORD ROOT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
xanth/o yellow xanthoma, xanthogranuloma, xanthochromia
xer/o dry xeroderma, xerosis



oqdehw

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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
a- without or absence of ataxia, aplasia, aphasia, atypia
ab- from, away from absorption, abduct, abnormal
ad- to, toward adhesion, adduct, adrenal
an- without or absence of anorexia, anethesia, anaerobic, anemia
ana- up, again, backward anaphylactic shock, analysis, anaplasia
ante- before antenatal, antefebrile, anteflexion
anti- against antibody, antitrypsin, antithrombin
apo- upon apoprotein, apoplexy, aponeurosis
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
bi- two bicupspid, bilateral, bicarbonate, biphasic
bin- two binaural, binocular
brady- slow bradycardia, bradykinin
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
cata- down cataplasia, cataracta, catabolism
circum- around circumocular, circumcision, circumference
con- together congenital, concentric, conjugation
contra- against contralateral, contraindication
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
de- from, down from, lack of deformity, dehydration, deoxyribonucleic acid
di- two, twice dimer, diminobenzidine, nitrogen dioxide
diplo- double diplopia, diploid
dia- through diaphragm, dialysis, diarrhea, diaper
dis- to, undo, free from disorientation, disinfection, dissociation
dys- difficult, labored, painful, abnormal dysuria, dysfunction, dystrophy, dysplasia
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
e- out eruption, evert, effusion, efferent
ecto- outside, outer ectoderm, ectopic, ectocervix
endo- within endoplasmic reticulum, endoscopy, endorphin
epi- on, upon, over epidermis, epicardium, epiglottis, epistaxis
eso- inward esogastritis, esophoria
eu- normal, good euthyroid, eutopic, euphoria
ex- outside, outward exacerbation, excise, extraction, external
exo- outside, outward exotoxin, exostosis, exophthalmus
extra- outside of, beyond extracellular, extrauterine, extravasation
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
hemi- half hemithyroidectomy, hemisphere, hemiparesis
hyper- above, excessive hypertrophy, hypertension, hyperemia
hypo- below, incomplete, deficient hypoplasia, hypoventilation, hypophysis
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
in- in, into, not incision, indigestion, incontinence
infra- under, below infraclavicular, infrascapular
inter- between intermittent, intercostal, intercellular
intra- within intravenous, intracranial, intracytoplasmic
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
juxta- near, beside juxtaposition, juxtaosseous, juxaglomerular
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
mal- bad malnutrition, malformation, malignancy
mega- large megacolon, megakaryocyte
megalo- mally large cardiomegaly, megaloblast, megalopenia
meso- middle mesencephalon, mesocolon, mesentery
meta- after, beyond, change metabolism, metastasis, metamorphosis
micro- small microsurgery, microcephalic, microscope
multi- many multiple, multicentric, multinucleated
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
neo- new neoplastic, neonate, neocortex
nulli- none nullipara, nulliparity
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oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
pachy- thick pachyderma, pachygyria
pan- all, total panencephalitis, pancytopenia
para- beside, beyond, around paraneoplastic, paranasal, paraplegia
per- though percutaneous, pertrochanteric, perforation
peri- surrounding (outer) pericyte, pericardium, peripheral
pleo- increase, too much pleomorphism, pleocytosis
poly- many, much polyposis, polyneuropathy, polyclonal
post- after postnasal, postpartal, postprandial
pre- in front of, before precancerous, prepuce, pretibial
pro- before prolapse, progression, promyelocyte
@
oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
re- back reflex, remission, reconstruction
retro- back, behind retroperitoneum, retrograde, retrogression
@
oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
semi- half semilunar, seminormal, semicoma
sub- under, below subside, sublingual, subacute
super- over, above superacute, supernatant, superficial
supra- above supraoptic, suprabasal, supraventricular
sym- together, joined symbiosis, sympathetic, symmetry
syn- together, joined synapse, syncope, synthesis, synergism
@
oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
tachy- fast, rapid tachypnea, tachycardia
tetra- four tetraplegia, tetramethyl, tetralogy
trans- through, across, beyond transmission, transportation, transhepatic
tri- three triad, tricuspid valve, triiodothyronine
@
oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
ultra- beyond, exess ultrasonic, ultraviolet, ultrafiltration
uni- one unicellular, unilocular, uniform

un-

not

unconsciousness, unsaturated
@
oqdehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
xero- dry xerosis, xeroderma



SUFehw

@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-ac pertaining to cardiac, celiac, ileac, ischiac
-agra excessive pain clidagra, celiagra, melagra, pellagra
-al pertaining to skeletal, bronchial, psychological
-algia pain myalgia, gastralgia, gonalgia, arthralgia
-apheresis removal plasmapheresis
-ar pertaining to muscular, ocular, molar, hilar
-ary pertaining to urinary, pulmonary
-ase enzyme lipase, elastase, peroxidase, amylase
-asthenia weakness myasthenia gravis, thrombasthenia
-atresia absence of a normal body opening, occlusion, closure duodenal atresia
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-capnia pertaining to carbon dioxide hypercapnia, hypocapnia
-cele hernia, protrusion cystocele, meningocele, mucocele
-centesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid celiocentesis, thoracocentesis
-cidal killing bactericidal, suicidal
-clasia break osteoclasia
-clasis break karyoclasis
-cle little article, particle
-clysis irrigating, washing enteroclysis
-coccus (pl.cocci) berry shaped (a form of bacterium) Streptococcus, Enterococcus
-crit to separate hematocrit
-cule little animalcule
-cyte cell thrombocyte, oocyte, keratinocyte
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-desis surgical fixation, fusion pleurodesis
-drome run, running syndrome, palindrome
-dynia pain
cephalodynia, coccydynia
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-eal pertaining to esophageal, pharyngeal, coccygeal
-ectasis streching out, dilatation, expansion bronchiectasis, lymphangiectasis, telangiectasis
-ectomy excision or surgical removal tonsillectomy, splenectomy, gastrectomy
-ectopia displacement ectopia
-emesis vomiting hematemesis, emesis
-emia blood condition hyperemia, hypokelemia, leukemia, anemia
-er one who killer, helper, inducer
-esis condition amniocentesis, diaphoresis
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-form
resembling cerebriform, fusiform, storiform, plexiform
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-gen substance or agent that produces or causes allergen, pathogen, glycogen, pyrogen oxygen, nitrogen, fibrinogen
-genesis origin, cause cytogenesis, pathogenesis
-genic producing, originating, causing pathogenic, iatrogenic, cardiogenic
-gram record, X-ray film sonogram, encephalogram, air bronchogram
-graph instrument used to record spirograph, micrograph
-graphy process of recording, X-ray filming roentgenography, radiography
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-ia condition of diseased or abnormal state insomnia, anemia, pneumonia, hyperplasia
-ial pertaining to axial, myocardial, facial
-iasis condition amebiasis, elephantiasis, nephrolithiasis
-iatry physician, treatment psychiatry
-ic pertaining to pelvic, hyperplastic, gastric, toxic
-ician one who clinician, technician, orthopedician
-ictal seizure, attack postictal, preictal
-ism state of hirsutism, anabolism, hyperthyroidism
-itis inflammation esophagitis, gastritis, colitis, osteitis
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-lalia speech, bubble echolalia
-lepsy seizure narcolepsy, epilepsy
-let little tumorlet, ringlet, doublet, triplet
-lysis loosing, dissolution, separating hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, analysis
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-malacia softening osteomalacia, encephalomalacia
-mania madness, insane desire maniac, onomatomania
-megaly enlargement hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly, splenomegaly
-meter instrumental used to measure ergometer, thermometer, parameter
-metry measurement spirometry, morphometry

-morphic

form, shape

monomorphic, pleomorphic, polymorphic
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-odia smell polypodia, sympodia
-odynia pain cardiodynia, gastrodynia
-oid resembling mucoid, osteoid, amyloid, adenoid, lipoid
-ole little arteriole
-ologist one who studies and practices (specialist) physiolosist, pathologist, cytologist
-ology study of physiology, radiology, pathology
-oma tumor, swelling osteoma, teratoma, hepatoma, carcinoma
-opia vision (condition) diplopia, gerontopia, nyctalopia
-opsy to view biopsy, necropsy, autopsy
-orrhagia rapid flow of blood metrorrhagia
-orrhaphy suturing, repairing cystorrhaphy, hymenorrhaphy
-orrhea flow, excessive discharge amenorrhea, galactorrhea
-orrhexis rupture karyorrhexis, enterorrhexis
-osis abnormal condition (means increased when used with blood cell word roots) neurosis, diverticulosis, alkalosis leucocytosis, erythrocytosis
-ostomy creation of an artificial opening cholecystostomy, colostomy, tracheostomy, gastrostomy
-ous pertaining to venous, mucous, cutaneous, ferrous
-oxia pertaining to oxygen hypoxia, anoxia, asphyxia
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-paresis slight paralysis hemiparesis
-pathy disease encephalopathy, neuropathy, mastopathy
-penia abnormal reduction in number leukopenia, thromocytopenia, lymphopenia
-pepsia digestion dyspepsia, apepsia
-pexy surgical fixation, suspension uteropexy, nephropexy
-phagia eating, swallowing omniphagia, erythrophagia
-phasia speech aphasia
-phil cells with staining reactions neutrophil, basophil, acidophil, oxyphil, chlorophil
-philia love eosinophilia, hemophilia
-philic attracting, absorbing hydrophilic, neutrophilic, basophilic
-phobia abnormal fear of oraversion to specific, objects or things chromophobia, phobophobia, hydrophobia, laliophobia
-phonia pertaining to sound, or voice dysphonia, aphonia
-phoria feeling euphoria
-physis growth hypophysis, epiphysis, metaphysis
-plasia formation, development, a growth hyperplasia, hypoplasia, dysplasia, aplasia, desmoplasia
-plasm growth,substance,formation cytoplasm, neoplasm, ergastoplasm
-plasty plastic or surgical repair septoplasty, tympanoplasty
-plegia paralysis paraplegia, tetraplegia
-pnea breathing dyspnea, orthopnea, tachypnea
-poiesis formation erythropoiesis, hematopoiesis
-porosis passage osteoporosis
-prandial meal postprandial, preprandial
-praxia in front of, before apraxia, dyspraxia
-ptosis dropping, sagging, prolapse nephroptosis, ptosis, gastroptosis
-ptysis spitting hemoptysis
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-rhage bursting hemorrhage, lymphorrhage
-rhea flow, discharge diarrhea, lymphorrhea, amenorrhea
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-salpinx fallopian tube hydrosalpinx, pyosalpinx
-sarcoma malignant tumor osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma
-schisis split, fissure retinoschisis
-sclerosis handening glomerulosclerosis, atherosclerosis
-scope instrument used for visual examination cystoscope, stethoscope, endoscope uteroscope, telescope
-scopy visual examination laparoscopy, bronchoscopy, proctoscopy
-sepsis infection asepsis
-spasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction angiospasm, bronchospasm, colpospasm
-stalsis contraction peristalsis
-stasis control, stop menostasis, cholestasis, hemostasis
-stenosis constriction, narrowing tracheostenosis
-stomy surgical creation of an opening colostomy, cutaneostomy, tracheostomy
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-thorax chest pneumothorax, hydrothorax
-tocia birth, labor tomotocia
-tome instrument used to cut dermatome, microtome
-tomy incision, cutting laparotomy, anatomy, thoracotomy
-tripsy surgical crushing lithotripsy
-trophy nourishment, developement atrophy, dystrophy, hypertrophy
-tropic acting on gonadotropic, corticotropic
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-ule little venule, tubule, granule, lobule
-uria urine, urination pollakiuria, oliguria, anuria
@
SUFehw DEFINITION EXAMPLE
-y condition of atony, telepathy


Common Plural Endings for Medical Terms

@@In the English language one often forms plurals by simply adding ''s'' or ''es'' to the word. Forming plurals in the language of medicine is not so simple. Use the table below to learn the standard plural formationof medical terms.


SINGULAR PLURAL
@@EXAMPLE
ENDING ENDING SINGULAR PLURAL
-a
-ax
-ex
-is
-ix
-ma
-on
-um
-us
-y
-ae
-aces
-ices
-es
-es
-mata
-a
-a
-i
-ies
vertebra
thorax
apex
pubis
cervix
sarcoma
ganglion
ovum
alveolus
biopsy
vertebrae
thoraces
apices
pubes
cervices
sarcomata
ganglia
ova
alveoli
biopsies

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